Joyce F. Benenson, Richard W. Wrangham, ‘Cross-Cultural Sex Differences in Post-Conflict Affiliation following Sports Matches’,, DOI:, Current Biology (August 4, 2016).

Intragroup cooperation

After sports matches, male opponents engage in friendly touches longer than females. (…) Male winners and losers make more friendly touches than their female counterparts. (…) Duration or frequency of peaceful physical contacts served as the measure of post-conflict affiliation because they are strongly associated with pro-social intentions (…) Across tennis, table tennis, badminton, and boxing, with participants from 44 countries, duration of post-conflict affiliation was longer for males than females. (…) Results indicate that unrelated human males are more predisposed than females to invest in a behavior, post-conflict affiliation, that is expected to facilitate future intragroup cooperation.