‘Innovative imaging study shows that the spinal cord learns on its own’, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/06/150630151452.htm, ScienceDaily (June 30, 2015).

Vahdat S, Lungu O, Cohen-Adad J, Marchand-Pauvert V, Benali H, Doyon J. Simultaneous Brain-Cervical Cord fMRI Reveals Intrinsic Spinal Cord Plasticity during Motor Sequence Learning. PLoS Biol, 2015 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002186

Results

The spinal cord engages in its own learning of motor tasks independent of the brain. (…) The results of the study indicate that the spinal cord plays an active role in the very earliest stages of motor learning.